[main]   quaternum .i. .ii. .iii. .iv.

1r (1)

Non audet stygius pluto tentare, quod aude[t]
Effrenis monachus plenaque dolis anus

N otandum est quod generaliter omnes dimicatores, sive omnes homines habentes gladium in manibus, etiam ignorantes artem dimicatoriam vtuntur hijs septem custodijs de quo habemus septem versus

Septem [cust]odie sunt sub brach incipiende
Humero dextrali datur alter terna sinistro
Capiti da quartam da dextro latere quintam
Pectori da sextam, postrema sit tibi l[angort]

N otandum quod ars dimicatoria sic describitur Dimicatio est diversarum plagarum ordinatio & diuiditur in septem partes vt hic

Stygian Pluto dares not attempt, what dare the mindless monk, and the deceitful old woman.

It is to be noted, how in general all fencers, or all men holding a sword in hand, even if ignorant in the art of fencing, use these seven wards, of which we have seven verses:

Seven wards there are, under the arm the foremost,
to the right shoulder is given the second, to the left the third,
to the head give the fourth, give to the right side the fifth,
to the breast give the sixth, and finally have you the langort.

It is to be noted, that the art of fencing is so described: Fencing is the the ordering of diverse strikes, and is divided in seven parts, as here.

The introductory verse was added on the upper margin of the page. According to Singman, it is attributed to Aenas Sylvius (later pope Pius II; 1405-64). It is obviously referring to other sorts of unmonkish behaviour, but it seems to underline the unusual nature of fencing monks and women.

1v (2)

N ota quod tot nucleus artis dimicatorie consistit in illa vltima custodia que nuncupatur langort pretera omnes actus custodiarum siue gladij determinantur in ea i. finem habent & non in alijs Vnde magis considera eam supradi[c]ta prima

Tres sunt que preeunt relique tunc fugiunt
Hec septem partes ducuntur per generales
Oppositum clerus mediumque tenet lutegerus

Note, that the nucleus of all the art of fencing consists in this latter ward which is called langort. Also, all actions of the wards or of the sword are determined by it, i.e. they end in it and not in others. Therefore, do first consider well this abovementioned ward.

It is three that preceed, the remaining do follow
These seven parts are (also) executed by the common,
(but) Brother Liutger has the defense and the means.

lutegerus: presumably tha name of the author / sacerdos: Liutger. C. f. Frank Cinato.

It appears that the seven wards are divided in two groups, 'even' wards (2nd, 4th, 6th), which 'precede' and 'odd' wards (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th), which 'follow'. C.f. the forum.

2r (3)

(+) N otandum hic continetur prima custodia, videlicet sub [brachio] obsesseo vero halbschilt Et consulo sano consilio quod il[...] sub brachio non ducat aliquam plagam quod probat de al[b]ersleiben, per raciones quia partem superiorem attingere non potest si inferiorem capiti erit perniciosum sed obsessor intrando potest eum invadere quandocumque si obmittit quod tenetur vt infra scriptum est

Custodia prima retinet contraria bina
Contrarium primum halpschil langortque secundum
Dum ducitur halpschilt cade sub gladium quoque scutum
Si generalis erit recipit caput sit tibi stichschlach
Si religat calcat contraria si(n)t tibi schiltschlac

N otandum quod qui iacet superius dirigit plagam post [c]apud sine schiltslach si est generalis Si autem uis edoceri consilio sacerdotis tunc religa et calca

Nota quod prima custodia videlicet sub brachium potest obsederi se ipsa ita videlicet quod obsidens cum eadem custodia potest regentem primam custodiam obsidere nichilominus tamen regens custodiam primam econtrario possessorem obsidere potest obsessione quadam que quodammodo concordat cum possessione que vocatur halpshilt differt tamen in eo quod gladius sub brachio* extenditur supra scutum taliter quod manus regens scutum includitur in manu regente gladium

(+) It is to be seen that here is the first ward contained, i.e. the one under the arm, and the displacer is in halpschilt. I give the good counsel that the one (assuming the ward) under the arm do not execute a strike, as recommended by de Alkersleiben, for the reason that he could not reach the upper part, and (reaching anywhere) lower would be pernicious to the head. But the displacer entering to attack may reach him at any time if he fails to observe what is written below:

Verse: The first ward has two counters,
the first counter being halbschilt, the second Langort.
If Halbschild is executed, fall below both sword and shield.
If he is a common fencer, he will strike to the head, then you should apply stichschlach,
if he binds and enters, then you should counter with schiltschlac.

It is to be seen that the one who is higher is directing a strike to the head, without schiltslac, if he is a common fencer. But if you would be instructed by the priest's counsel, do bind and enter.

Note that the first ward, i.e. the one under the arm, may be displaced by itself, namely, the displacer may displace the one assuming the first ward with that selfsame ward. Nevertheless, the one assuming first ward can displace the displacer with a displacement that in a way corresponds to the displacement called halpschilt, but differs from it in this, that the sword below the arm is extended above the shield, so that the hand holding the shield is enclosed by the hand holding the sword.

halbschilt: the drawings do not use perspective, but from the term I conclude that the shield will be held at an angle of 45 degrees, so that half the area of the shield is facing the opponent. recipit: c.f. note ad fol. 9r

The somewhat graceless addition simply describes a position analogous to halpschilt with the buckler protecting the right hand side, c. f. schutzen on fol. 9r.

2v (4)

N otandum quod scolaris [religat hic & calcat] ad hoc ut recipiat schiltslac vt infra Sed caueat de hiis que sunt facienda ex parte sacerdo[tis quia ...] post religationem sacerdos erit prior ad agendum

N otandum est etiam quod scolaris nichil habet aliud facere quam schiltslac vel circumdare sinistra manu brachia sacerdotis videlicet gladium & scutum

Versus: Hic religat calcat scolaris sit sibi schilslach
Siue sinistra manu circumdat brachia cleri

Sacerdos autem tria habet facere videlicet mutuare gladium q vt fiat superior Siue durchtreten vel sinistra dextra manu comprehendere brachia* scolaris i. gladium & scutum

Hec tria sunt cleri durchtrit mutacio gladii
dextra siue manu poterit deprehendere gladium schutum

Nota quod supradictum est invenies hic exempli gestum

It is to be seen, that the pupil is here binding and entering, so that he may place a schiltschlac, as below. But he should take heed of what is done by the priest, as after the bind the priest will be the first to act.

It is to be seen, that the pupil has no option but to do a schiltslac, or to grip the arms of the priest with his left hand, namely sword and shield.

Verse: Here the pupil binds and enters, for him is a schiltslac
Or with the left hand he grip the arms of the priest.

The priest, on the other hand, has three options, namely mutation of the sword, so that it be higher, or durchtreten, or with the left right hand grasp the pupil's arms, i.e. sword and shield.

These three are for the priest: durchtritt, mutation of the sword, or with the right hand he may grasp sword and shield.

Note that you find here what was said above, executed in the example.

change of perspective in the first image (the scene is drawn from the other side)

3r (5)

(+) N otandum quod prima custodia resumitur hic propter quosdam actus illius primi frusti i. prime custodie de quibus prius actum est sed omnia que ponuntur hic invenies in primo folio vsque ad mutacionem gladii

Dum ducitur halpschilt cade
sub gladium quoque scutum

(+) It is to be seen how the first ward is again assumed, because of certain actions of this first section, i.e. because of the first ward that was treated first. But all things that belong here you will find on the first page, up to the mutation of the sword.

If halbschilt is assumed, fall below both sword and shield.

This verse is open to disputation. Most likely, quoque combines sword and shield into a unity; sub seems to refer to a lower bind, as halpschilt threatens a blow from above. C.f. this swordforum thread (summarized here). The same situation is depicted 8v and 23v. That a binding between sword and shield ist not intended becomes clear on fol. 11r, where exactly that move is deprecated.

3v (6)

Hic fit religatio ex parte scolaris & omnia alia de quibus superi[u]s dictum est vsque infra ad mutationem gladij

Hic eget scolaris bono consilio quomodo possit resiste[re] huic Et est sciendum quod quando ludus ita se habet vt hic tu[nc] debet duci stich sicut generaliter in libro continetur quamuis non sint ymagines de hoc.

N otandum quod sacerdos mutat gladium hic quia fuit inferior nunc vero erit superior demum seorsum ducit gladium post capud adversarij sui quod nuncupatur nucken de quo generatur separatio gladij et scuti scolaris

Vnde versus Clerici sic nucken generales non nulli schutzen

Here is a binding of the pupil's, and all other things, of which was talked above, until the mutation of the sword.

Here the pupil is wanting good counsel how he could withstand this, and you must know, that if the game stands as here, then a stich must be executed, as commonly contained in the book, even if here is no image.

It is to be seen, that the priest is here mutating the sword, because he was below earier, now he will be above. Then, he moves the free sword upwards, which is called nucken, whence follows a separation of sword and shield of the pupil's.

Thence the verse: such is the monk's nucken, where most of the common will schutzen.

change of perspective.

4r (7)

Caveat hic sacerdos ne faciat aliquam moram cum gladio ne generatur ex illa mora actus quidam qui vocatur luctacio sed statim debet reformare ligaturam propter cautionem

(+) H ic resumitur prima custodia cuius custodie obsessio erit valde rara quia nu[llu]s consweuit eam ducere nisi sacerdos vel sui clientuli i. discipuli & nuncupatur illa obse[ssio] krucke & consulo bona fide quod ille qui regit custodiam statim post obsessionem ligat quia non est bonum latitare vel aliquid talium faciat per quod possit salvari vel saltim ducat id quod ipse possessor ducit

S ciendum quod obsessor non debet h[esitare sed] ducat statim stich post obsess[ionem ...] tunc non potest adversarius delibe[rare quod] intendat & hoc diligenter intell[igatur]

Here the priest should pay attention that he tarry not one instant with the sword, lest from that instant arise an act which is called grappling, but he must immediately re-establish the binding out of caution.

(+) Here the first ward is re-assumed, to which ward the displacement will be very rare, because none uses to apply it save the priest or his clients, i.e. his students, und this displacement is called krucke, and I cousel in good faith that the one executing the ward should bind immediately after the displacement, because it is not goot to tarry, or that he should do aught by which he may be saved, or that he should immediately do that, which his displacer does.

You must know that the displacer must not hesitate, but he should execute immediately a stich towards the displacer, so that his adversary cannot deliberate what he intend, and that should diligently comprehended.

diligenter intell...: seems unclear to me; either the instructions, that one should not hesitate should be understood diligently, or the diligence with which the adversary will judge one's actions is stressed.

4v (8)

H ic ligat sacerdos super obsessioenem discipili & inmediate veniunt omnia precedentia que prius habueras licet alias duas ymagines non habueris que subsecuntur vbi recipit gladium & scutum

N ota quod quandocumque ligans & ligatus sunt in lite vt hic tunc ligatus potest fugere quocumque vult si placet & requiritur in omnibus ligaturis sed de hoc debes esse munitus vt vbicumque ligatus sis sequens eum

Ligans ligati contrarij sunt & irati
ligatus fugit ad partes laterum peto sequi

H ic docet sacerdos discipulum su[um quo] modo debet ex hiis superioribus recipere gladium & scutum & sciendum quod sacerdos non potest absolui a tali deprehensione sine amissione gladij & scuti

Here the priest binds above the pupil's displacement, and immediately, all the preceding things which you had above; granted, you did not have the other two images which follow, where he grasps sword and shield.

Note that whenever binder and bound are competing as here, then the bound may flee whither he chooses, if he likes, and this is reqhired in all bindings. But of this you must be admonished, that where ever the bound (flees to), you should follow him.

Binder and bound are adverse and irate;
The bound flees to the side, I try to follow.

Here the priest teaches his pupil, how from these above things he may grasp sword and shield. And you must know, that the priest cannot free himself from such a grip without the loss of sword and shield.

ligans ligati: One would expect *ligans ligatusque vel. sim. (plural subject). Literally, the translation would be "The binder of the bound - they are...", or "The binder; the bound ones are...". But I believe my translation correctly renders the intended meaning.

fugit ad partes laterum: refers to side-stepping, i.e. taking into account the 3rd dimension not rendered in the images.

5r (9)

H ic defendit sacerdos quod superius fecit scolaris

(+) H ic resumitur prima custodia sed omnia que requiruntur hic habes in eadem excepta sola obmissione ligacionis quam scolaris obmittit

Here the priest defends against what the pupil did above.

(+) Here the first ward is re-assumed, but all that is necessary you have here in it, except only the omission of the binding, which the pupil omits.

5v (10)

H ic obmisit scolaris quod non ligauit prossus sacerdos intrauit & non inmerito quia vbicumque regens custodiam obmittit quod suum est facere obsessor statim debet intrare vt hic

(+) Obsessio vt prius sed ludus variatur

Here the pupil has neglected to bind, and the priest has promptly entered, and not undeservingly, as whenever the one assuming the ward omits something he should do, the displacer must immediately enter, as here.

(+) Displacement as before, but the game is varied.

change of perspective (upper image)

6r (11)

S vperius sacerdos obsedit scolarem hic vero scolaris ducit eundem lu actum quem duxit sacerdos sed obsidentis prius est intrare si sacerdos scolaris obmittit vt infra preterea caueat hic ne alter recipiat capud quod potest

E t hiis superio[ri]bus sacerdos intrat dixi caveat ergo capud

Above, the priest displaced the pupil. Here now, the pupil is executing the same action as the priest before. But the displacer should enter first, if the pupil omits it, as below. Also, he should take care that the other reach not his head, which he may.

And from the above actions, the priest enters, I have said: he should therefore mind his head.

6v (12)

(+) H ic iterum resumitur prima custodia videlicet sub brachio* que obsedetur cum quodam contrario quod dicitur langort & est generalis obsessio cuius obssessionis contraria sunt ex parte regentis custodiam ligationes sub et supra vnde versus Dum ducitur langort statim liga sub quoque supra Sed superior ligacio semper vtilior erit quam inferior

(+) Here the first ward is re-assumed, namely the one under the arm, which is displaced with a certain counter that is called langort, and it is a common displacement, and the counters to this displacement are, for the part of the one assuming the ward, bindings above and below, whence the verse: When langort is executed, do bind immediately, above or else below. But the higher binding is always more useful than the lower one.

The text is referring to the lower image. For the first time, "langort" is shown. As a ward, langort is depicted with lowered sword (1v, 17v ff.). But here (and also 14r, 16r) langort is a displacement, and it is shown with horizontal sword. But c.f. also the "upper langort" in fol. 21r.

7r (13)

H ic erit ludus prioris custodie scilicet ligantis & ligati vnde versus Ligans ligati contrarij sunt & irati ligatus fugit ad partes laterum peto sequi

Johannes Herbart von Wirtzburck

Here the game of the former ward will take place, namely of binder and bound, whence the verse: Binder and bound are adverse and irate; the bound flees to the side, I try to follow.

Johannes Herwart of Würzburg

change of perspective (upper image)

7v (14)

(+) C ustodia prima [&] obsessio generalis vt supra sed variatur ludus in fine frusci

Superior --- Inferior Sed sacerdos ligauit licet sit inferior

(+) First ward and common displacement as above, but the game varies at the end of the passage.

above --- below. But the priest has bound, in spite of being below.

8r (15)

Hic fit mutatio gladij inferioris

Here a mutation of the sword below is taking place.

8v (16)

(+) C ustodia prima resumitur hic et obsedetur cum prima possessione videlicet halpschilt et habebis omnia priora

Versus: Dum ducitur halpschilt cade sub gladium quoque scutum

(+) The first ward is re-assumed and displaced by the first displacement, namely halpschilt, and you will have all of the above.

Verse: When halbschild is assumed, fall upon the joint of sword and shield.

dab 2003.